Biblical views of the center of the Earth as a hellish pit raging with fire and brimstone have some support from new research. Scientists have found that the vast majority of brimstone — reverently referred to in biblical times as “burning stone,” but now known more commonly as sulfur — dwells deep in the Earth’s core.
“In a way, we can also say that we have life imitating art,” study lead author Paul Savage, a research scientist in the Department of Earth Sciences at Durham University in the United Kingdom, said in a statement.”For millennia, tales have been told of the underworld being awash with fire and brimstone. Now at least, we can be sure of the brimstone.”
The researchers estimate that the Earth’s core contains 10 times the amount of sulfur than in the rest of the world, or comparable to about 10 percent of the mass of the moon. [Religion and Science: 6 Visions of Earth’s Core]
Scientists have generally understood that at the time of Earth’s formation, heavy metals such as iron and nickel sunk to the planet’s core, and light elements, like oxygen, silicon, aluminum, potassium, sodium, and calcium, mostly concentrated in the outer layers of the Earth, in the mantle and crust.
As for the earth, out of it cometh bread: and under it is turned up as it were fire- Job 28:5 (KJV).
However, the mass of the Earth’s solid inner core, which is too light to be composed solely of metal, has been an enduring inconsistency in our understanding of the planet’s distribution of elements. To explain the core’s lighter-than-expected weight, scientists assumed that the core had to contain some lighter elements, such as oxygen, carbon, silicon and sulfur.
“Scientists have suspected that there is sulphur in the core for some time, but this is the first time we have solid geochemical evidence to support the idea,” Savage said.
Confirming the presence of lighter elements, like sulfur, in the core, provides information about the temperatures, pressures and oxygen content in the Earth’s mantle, which surrounds the core and separates it from the crust on which we walk. “It’d be nice to know what the Earth is formed of, as a fundamental aspect of understanding the Earth,” Savage told Live Science.
Peeling back the layers
Without the technology to dig 1,800 miles (2,900 kilometers, or the equivalent of around 3,000 Eiffel Towers stacked on top of one another), scientists looked for clues created by a 4.47 billion-year-old impact— the moon-forming collision between Earth and a large, planet-size body called Theia.
“The giant impact wouldn’t have just formed the moon; it wouldn’t have just sort of sliced a bit of material off and end up becoming the moon,” Savage said. “The amount of energy involved in this sort of impact would have, if not completely, it would have partially melted the Earth’s mantle to a certain depth.” When the mantle melted, some of its sulfur-rich liquid seeped into the core, and some of it evaporated into space, he added.
“You could lose a lot of it during evaporation,” Savage said. “Just by looking at the sulfur, we can’t really tell much about how much is in the core versus how much has been lost to space,” making sulfur virtually impossible to directly measure.
To track and quantify the elusive sulfur, the researchers looked to copper isotopes (atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons). “We chose copper, because it is a chalcophile element, which means it prefers to be in sulphide-rich material — so it is a good element to trace the fate of sulphur on Earth,” Frédéric Moynier, the study’s senior author and a professor at the Institut de Physique du Globe in Paris, said in a statement. “Generally, where there is copper, there is sulphur; copper gives us a proxy measurement for sulphur.”
Searching for sulfur
The researchers measured the copper isotope values from both the mantle and core to discover where they would find sulfur. Meteorites were used to represent the “bulk Earth,” which includes the core, mantle and crust. Meteorites are jumbles of extraterrestrial matter that have been orbiting the sun since even before planets formed. “They’re like cosmic sediments,” Savage said. “If we got a planet and milled it down, if we sort of crushed it up and mixed it around, that’s what we assume would be in meteorites.”
Samples formed from lava eruptions, as well as from tectonic events, which pushed the mantle onto the surface of the Earth, were used to represent so-called “bulk silicate Earth” values, which include the copper content in the mantle and crust. Researchers can then figure out the copper content in the Earth’s core by subtracting the “bulk silicate Earth” value from the “bulk Earth” value.
The scientists measured a heavy “bulk silicate Earth” copper isotope value compared with the “bulk Earth” value, which could indicate that the mantle has a lot of heavy copper and the core does not. However, through experiments, they found that the “copper in the core should be slightly heavy compared to the mantle — so the core cannot balance out the heavy mantle compared to meteorites, because it is also heavy,” Savage said. If there are a lot of heavy copper isotopes in one part of the Earth, another part will have a lot of light copper isotopes.
To explain copper’s “heaviness” in both the mantle and core, the researchers predicted that a sulfur-rich liquid with “light” copper formed after the impact that created the moon. “So the [melted mantle] is light, the mantle is heavy, and the two, when mixed together, would equal bulk Earth (meteorites),” Savage said.
After the Earth formed from meteorites and other extraterrestrial matter like dust and rock, it started to melt, forming its core. During core formation, some “heavy” copper left the melting mantle and entered the core, leaving the mantle with “lighter” copper, Savage said. Then, following the giant moon-forming impact, the Earth’s mantle re-melted, forming a sulfur-rich liquid. “Light” copper attached itself to the liquid, leaving the mantle with the “heavier” copper, reflected in the compositions measured in present-day lava and rocks, the researchers said.
“This study is the first to show clear geochemical evidence that a sulphide liquid must have separated from the mantle early on in Earth’s history — which most likely entered the core,” Savage said.
The researchers detailed their findings yesterday (June 16) in the journal Geochemical Perspectives Letters.
Source: Live Science
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Jesus Christ was born, lived, died, and rose again for the sole purpose of saving us from our sins. Are you saved? The bible declares that “For whosoever shall call upon the name of the Lord shall be saved.” – Romans 10:13 (KJV). Salvation is turning your life over to Jesus Christ, believing that Jesus is the son of God, and renewing your mind with his spirit, that is done through repentance of sin, and following JESUS with all your heart, mind and soul. JESUS transforms lives, if you are ready for this life saving step, call upon your savior TODAY! Learn more here.
Trust in Jesus, and then confess your belief, confess your sins, and acknowledge before men in words, actions and deeds, that you are a disciple of Christ.
Articles such as this, never cease to amaze me, science ends up circling back to the truths we read about in the bible.
Canst thou by searching find out God? canst thou find out the Almighty unto perfection? It is as high as heaven; what canst thou do? deeper than hell; what canst thou know? – Job 11:7-8 (KJV).
The bible gives many teachings on fire, sulfur and brimstone, and are usually in relation to hell and judgment. To read about fire, sulfur and brimstone (warning: not for the faint of heart) you can find them in the following verses:
- Genesis 19:24
- Job 18:15
- Deuteronomy 29:23
- Ezekiel 38:22
- Isaiah 30:33, 34:9
- Psalm 11:6
- Luke 17:29
- Revelation 9:17-18, 14:10, 19:20, 20:9, and 21:18
We also know that GOD will in fact destroy the earth as he did before, once by water, and the next time with fire and brimstone:
For this they willingly are ignorant of, that by the word of God the heavens were of old, and the earth standing out of the water and in the water: 6) Whereby the world that then was, being overflowed with water, perished: 7) But the heavens and the earth, which are now, by the same word are kept in store, reserved unto fire against the day of judgment and perdition of ungodly men- 2 Peter 3:5-7 (KJV).
God our Creator, has already given us a written account of the history of the world. God’s word provides us with truths and accuracies that trump any teachings by secular scientists who have betrayed truth in search of their own lofty wisdom. Outside the framework provided in the word of God, these men lead many astray, and are tossed to and fro in every doctrine and direction. But our Creator God, plants our feet and gives us wisdom that pales mans wisdom! Blessed are those who believe by hearing, and have faith not by sight, but by the power of the Holy Spirit. There is none other, than GOD, our creator, that we should trust. In all matters, our heavenly father is the truth that humanity seeks, and some chose to ignore. When our scientific interpretations are based on scriptural truths, our faith is strengthened and we begin to understand the “deeper things of God.”
10) But God hath revealed them unto us by his Spirit: for the Spirit searcheth all things, yea, the deep things of God. 11) For what man knoweth the things of a man, save the spirit of man which is in him? even so the things of God knoweth no man, but the Spirit of God. 12) Now we have received, not the spirit of the world, but the spirit which is of God; that we might know the things that are freely given to us of God. 13) Which things also we speak, not in the words which man’s wisdom teacheth, but which the Holy Ghost teacheth; comparing spiritual things with spiritual -1 Corinthians 2:10-13(KJV).
14) But the natural man receiveth not the things of the Spirit of God: for they are foolishness unto him: neither can he know them, because they are spiritually discerned. 15) But he that is spiritual judgeth all things, yet he himself is judged of no man. 16) For who hath known the mind of the Lord, that he may instruct him? But we have the mind of Christ. -1 Corinthians 2:14-16 (KJV).
It is important to understand that fire, sulfur, brimstone exist, and in no uncertain terms HELL IS REAL. There is punishment for the wicked and unbelieving. But, God wants us to understand that he has reserved fire and brimstone for those who reject Jesus Christ, that he does not want any man to perish, but to come to the knowledge of truth, and that TRUTH IS that JESUS died for our sins. We must accept Christ as our savior. We should at all cost focus on how to avoid eternal damnation and a sentence to hell, which is the second death. We died once spiritually, but through Christ, we are given life, and will never taste the second death.
That point was demonstrated and thankfully so, when GOD, who so loved the world, sent his only begotten son Jesus Christ to die on the cross to make a way to restore us to fellowship with God, and to keep us from perishing in hell. Jesus grants us eternal life, with a future that need never include “fire and brimstone.” Hell is described as a place of torment, wailing and gnashing of teeth, a place that none of us wants to go! (John 3:16). Without Jesus,and the gift of salvation, , man will in fact go to hell.
JESUS holds all power and dominion over HELL, through him we have eternal life, and through JESUS, we receive salvation. If we should choose to ignore this, God forbid, we know that in the end, JESUS is the one who stands and says, job well done faithful servant, or I never knew you. That point is clearly stated in the following verse, which tells us of Christs de facto power over hell:
I am he that liveth, and was dead; and, behold, I am alive for evermore, Amen; and have the keys of hell and of death- Revelation 1:18 (KJV).
It is WISDOM for all mankind to yield and trust implicitly in Jesus Christ, who died on the cross to make atonement, who made a blood sacrifice to cover our sins, and now lives to make intercession:
But as it is written, Eye hath not seen, nor ear heard, neither have entered into the heart of man, the things which God hath prepared for them that love him- 1 Corinthians 2:9 (KJV).
Only a fool says there is no GOD, reject Jesus at your own peril.
Say unto them, As I live, saith the Lord GOD, I have no pleasure in the death of the wicked; but that the wicked turn from his way and live: turn ye, turn ye from your evil ways; for why will ye die, O house of Israel? – Ezekiel 33:11 (KJV).