Historical Timeline of Israel and the Temple Mount

The complexity of life, of the human body alone, validates that there is a supernatural designer and creator, a powerful God. Being supernatural, God is not constrained by physical properties such as energy, matter, or even time. Accordingly, God validated the authenticity of scriptures by predicting epic world events hundreds, even thousands of years—ahead of time.

2000 BC – God made a covenant with Abraham and his descendants. At God’s request, Abraham prepared to sacrifice his son as a sacrificial lamb on the Temple Mount. But at the last moment, God stopped this sacrifice. (Genesis 17:1-9, 22:9-12)

1900 BC – Jacob, the grandson of Abraham, had twelve sons. These twelve men fathered the twelve tribes of Israel. However eleven of the sons sold one of their brothers, Joseph, into Egyptian slavery. (Genesis 35:23-26, 37:26-28)

1876 BC – Famine drove Israel’s remaining eleven sons into Egypt. Israel eventually became enslaved by the Egyptians. (Genesis 47:5-6; Exodus 1:8-14) 1446 BC – Israel sacrificed the initial Passover lambs, as God’s judgment passed-over Israel and punished the enslaving Egyptians. God’s intervention allowed Israel to depart Egypt. (Exodus 12:1-13, 12:51)

1406 BC – Moses received the Ten Commandments. These laws set God’s standards, which everyone has violated at one point. Because we have all offended God, we need a restored (new covenant) relationship with God. (Exodus 20:1-17; Romans 3:23)

1000 BC – Soon after King David committed adultery with Bathsheba, Israel’s unfaithfulness to God increased. Their son, Solomon, built the First Temple on the Temple Mount where blood atonement, in the form of animal sacrifice, continued. Solomon was the last king of a unified Israel. (2 Samuel 11:2 – 12:24)

935 BC – Israel was divided into two nations: the Northern Kingdom of Israel, and the Southern Kingdom of Judah. Over time Israelis increasingly accepted pagan religion. There was a growing threat of invasion, a judgment for Israel’s acceptance of pagan religion. (Jeremiah 3:6-13, 7:17-26, 28:12-14)

721 BC – The Northern Kingdom of Israel fell to the Assyrians and was taken into captivity. (2 Kings 17:5-6)

606 BC – Babylon invaded the Southern Kingdom, and placed Jerusalem under siege. King Nebuchadnezzar brought Israeli youth leaders to Babylon for instruction, to include the prophet Daniel. He returned to Judah ten years later and sent 10,000 Israeli officers and leading citizens to Babylon.

586 BC – Immediately prior to Babylon’s invasion of Judah, God promised a new and improved covenant relationship with man. Prophets described events on the day the Messiah would establish this covenant. Babylonian destruction of Jerusalem included the First Temple on the Temple Mount. (Isaiah 53; Jeremiah 39:1)

539 BC – The Babylonian Empire fell to Darius the Mede, and the Medo-Persia Empire ascended to power. Cyrus, King of Persia released Israelis from captivity. Cyrus directed those returning to Israel to rebuild the Temple. Israelis completed the Second Temple in 515 BC. (Daniel 5:30-31; Ezra 1:1-3, 6:15)

445 BC – Persian King Artaxerxes issued a command to rebuild Jerusalem. Before this command was ever written, Daniel foretold that the Messiah would come to Jerusalem 483 years after the date of this decree. When the dates in this forecast are calculated using today’s calendar, it foretold the date of Jesus’ entry into Jerusalem at the time of his crucifixion. Historians have calculated these dates as being from March 14, 445 BC to April 6, 32 AD. (Ezra 7:1; Daniel 9:24-26)

430 BC – Israel was a small province on the edge of the Persian Empire. Israelis lost faith in God and the promised Messiah. Through Malachi, God pleaded with the Israelis to trust and obey him, “Bring the whole tithe into the storehouse, that there may be food in my house. Test me in this, says the LORD Almighty, and see if I will not throw open the floodgates of heaven and pour out so much blessing that you will not have room enough for it.” (Malachi 3:10) However Israel disregarded God’s offer of prosperity.

332 BC – The benevolent Medo-Persian rule over Jerusalem ended with the Greek conquests of Alexander the Great.

170 BC – Antiochus (IV) Epiphanes ruled Jerusalem, and attempted to eradicate the Jewish faith. He imposed the Greek religion by erecting a statue of Zeus and by sacrificing a pig on the Temple Mount.

63 BC – After a brief period of Israeli independence, Pompey conquered Jerusalem and the Roman conquest began. In 40 BC, the Parthians conquered Jerusalem. Then in 37 BC, with backing from Caesar, the Israeli King Herod the Great invaded Jerusalem. King Herod’s brutality was widely condemned.

4 BC – Yeshua Ha Machiah (Jesus the Messiah) was born. Because his only father was God, Jesus was born of a virgin. Being the bread of life, Jesus was born in Bethlehem, which translates as “the house of bread.” King Herod sent soldiers to kill Jesus, so Joseph fled with his family to Egypt. Later they moved to Nazareth in northern Israel where Jesus grew into a man. (Isaiah 7:14; Micah 5:2; John 6:35; Matthew 2:13-21).


26  AD – John the Baptist proclaimed an uncompromising message of repentance to prepare Israel for its Messiah. John’s baptism was a purification rite for repentant sinners in accordance with Jewish custom. John anticipated a messianic figure greater than himself. (Matthew 3:1-12).

28 AD – Jesus moved to Capernaum on the northern shores of the Sea of Galilee, where he gathered disciples and proclaimed the manifesto for the kingdom of God. (Matthew 4:13, 5:3-12).

32 AD – Near the end of his ministry, Jesus entered Jerusalem on a donkey. Israelis proclaimed that he was the promised Messiah. However, Jesus came to provide spiritual deliverance from sin, not political deliverance from Rome. Envious of his popularity, religious leaders plotted to kill Jesus. They succeed when the crowd, disappointed that Jesus did not provide deliverance from Rome, turned against him. (Matthew 21:1-11, 26:3-4, 27:23).

At the last supper before his death, Jesus established a blood covenant that incorporated all believers into the body of Christ. Jesus was arrested and endured trials before the high priest and the Sanhedrin, then before Herod of Galilee, and Ponches Pilot of Judea. The Israeli people were required to either accept Jesus as Messiah, or execute him for the crime of blasphemy. On the day of preparation for Passover, Jesus was sacrificed a Passover lamb. Jesus endured the punishment that every person deserves, so that God’s eternal punishment would “pass-over” his people. (Matthew 26:26- 28; 26:57-68; Leviticus 24:16; John 19:7, 31; Exodus 12:21; Isaiah 53:7; 1 Corinthians 5:7).

57-59 AD – Following Jesus’ example, the Apostle Paul again brought God’s offer of salvation to Israel’s religious and political leaders. However, Israel once again rejected Jesus as its Messiah. (Acts 23-26).

70 AD – In response to an Israeli uprising, Titus of Rome destroyed Jerusalem and the Second Temple. Jews were scattered to all nations and mistreated for hundreds of years. Moses foretold this centuries-long exile from Israel in Deuteronomy 28:64-66. Jesus foretold details concerning this tragedy: “The days will come upon you when your enemies will build an embankment against you and encircle you and hem you in on every side. They will dash you to the ground, you and the children within your walls. They will not leave one stone on another, because you did not recognize the time of God’s coming to you.” (Luke 19:43-44)

95 AD – John recorded Revelation, the final book of the New Testament. John foretold end-time events, and the return of the Messiah. This story included a modern Israel (established in 1948 AD), a restored Roman Empire (established in 1957 AD), and an unfaithful church. The identifying characteristic of this church is that it accepted religious traditions that originated in ancient Babylon. (Revelation 17:9)

1947 AD – The Dead Sea Scrolls were found in an Israel cave. Scientific analysis of these over 2,000 year old documents proved Old Testament scriptures had not changed over time. These scrolls also proved the crucifixion was foretold several centuries before the event occurred.

1948 AD – God restored Israel as a nation. Ezekiel foretold Israel’s restoration, “And the nations will know that the people of Israel went into exile for their sin, because they were unfaithful to me. So I hid my face from them and handed them over to their enemies, and they all fell by the sword. I dealt with them according to their uncleanness and their offenses, and I hid my face from them. Therefore this is what the Sovereign Lord says: I will now bring Jacob* back from captivity and will have compassion on all the people of Israel, and I will be zealous for my holy name.” (Ezekiel 39:23- 25) *Note: Jacob is the early name for Israel per Genesis 32:28.

1967 AD – Israel captured Jerusalem during the Six Day War. However, Islam was permitted to maintain control of the Temple Mount.

1957 AD – Much of the territory of the original Roman Empire was restored under the Treaty of Rome. Additional countries later join the European Union, paving the way for Antichrist to rule a united Europe. The future of Israel is central to the future of all nations. Jesus will one day return to earth and defeat Israel’s enemies. In the fullness of time, God will deliver Israel from the Roman Empire. Today Jesus serves as High Priest and Messiah, offering a covenant of forgiveness and peace to everyone who will accept him. (Hebrews 7:24-26, 8:8-10)

Source: History of Israel

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